I had to open Amazon Gallery page, my previous 3 pages started being overcrowded with texts and pictures. It is amazing how much more still sits on my pc and how much more is out there. Based on way less material entire religions are written but not these girls.
I guess somebody have to do it.
I guess somebody have to do it.
rare; Amazons slaying Griphons.
ΑVΤ Κ Π ΛΙΚ ΓΑΛΛΙΗΝΟC, Laureate draped cuirassed bust right | CΜΥΡΝΑΙΟΝ Γ Ν_ΕΟΚΟΡΟΝ[..] ΠΙ[...] ΦΙΛ[..] ΤΟΥ, The amazon Smyrna, turreted and cuirassed, standing facing, head left, holding labrys (double-bitted battle-axe) and pelta (shield) right.
Update: After obtaining another coin of this city and magistrates, I believe a more accurate reading of the legends is AVT K Π ΛIK_[IN] ΓAΛΛIHNOC / CMYPNAIΩN Γ N_EΩKOPΩN[..] IΠ[ΠIKOV] ΦIΛH_TOV
Update: After obtaining another coin of this city and magistrates, I believe a more accurate reading of the legends is AVT K Π ΛIK_[IN] ΓAΛΛIHNOC / CMYPNAIΩN Γ N_EΩKOPΩN[..] IΠ[ΠIKOV] ΦIΛH_TOV
Ionia-Smyrna, AE20, Pseudo-autonomous issue during 2nd-3rd centuries
Draped bust of the Amazon Smyrna left, wearing mural crown, labrys in right hand over shoulder
CMYR | NAIWN
Legend above and below lion walking right
19mm x 20mm, 3.70g
Klose, Muenzpraegung von Smyrna in der roem. Kaiserzeit, obv. die 6 rev. die 9 (pl. 9), cat. 11 p. 164 (12 spec.), dated "2nd-3rd cent."
Ionia, Smyrna (2nd Century BC), Silver Tetradrachm, turreted head of Tyche rig
The armed wing of feminism: the AmazonsAlain Bertrand
full article here; http://labyrinthe.revues.org/742?lang=en
The Amazons, or the armed branch of feminism
Feminine difference HAS always been Defended forcibly by the Amazons. In the course of history, They Have beens vilified Alternately - Their existence Even HAS-been denied - Acknowledged gold Defended. The scientists (historians, Sociologists, philosophers ...) Who-have-been studying the myths and history of These female warriors Throughout history, linked-have Their origins with a primitive matriarchy, qui Was To Become a dense PARTICULARLY and significant "archemyth". Following Some Precursors, Johann Jakob Bachofen (1861) HAS Overthrown the sexist preconceived Ideas that prevailed then and feminine Revealed The fundamental differences and values-have That led to the war of the sexes concerne que la myth. The modern-have Researchers connected the myth of the Amazons with the cult of the Great Goddess, with agricultural sedentarism and productivism, with ecology and lesbianism. All notions thesis underline Their feminine difference and ESTABLISH That modern and ancient Amazons are the genuine armed branch of feminism ° .
This item has-been published in open access since 22 March, 2005.
There are many myths of the Amazons. There is one, sometimes several, in almost every culture and mythology, as well as variants, illustrating probably more often the rapporteur's fantasies real development or the original stories. The near universality of emergences of this myth and many of its invariants and mythémiques recurrences suggest the existence of a previous reality any transmission and mythological transcription, a "archémythe" whose approximate reconstruction is not impossible and which is none other than the matriarchy.
The stories constituting this global rhizome Amazon - since the creation of the amazon nation and its conflicts with almost all of the Greek hero to the Amazons of the New World through the Wlasta revolt in Bohemia and war Dahomey 1- Are mostly well known. All have been many comments and analyzes from the Archaic period to the present. However, they have rarely been compared with each other. When one tries to, it is clear that all, or almost, tend to the same conclusion: the existence of a primitive way of life where women, because of its specific ability to give life, was considered endowed with divine and magical powers and, therefore, held the moral power, if not the power, in the community. This primitive matriarchy would be this archémythe linking and explain all the mythical Amazonian occurrences.
The first scientific explanations
The preliminary Bachofen begins with Strabo (Greek geographer of the first century), the first to officially question the actual existence of the Amazons, and continues the xvi th in xix th century with several French chroniclers Francis Chassipol Pierre Petit Le Maingre Boucicaut, Claude-Marie Guyon and FG Bergmann, all five defending the idea of a historical reality of the Amazons. Bachofen then exposes theories which cause so many enthusiastic reactions (Friedrich Engels and sociologist Pierre Gordon) as refutations (Claude Levi-Strauss and Simone de Beauvoir, among others).
Strabo, the first opponent
Strabo highlights one of the major features of the myth of the Amazons that does not distinguish what comes from the fable of what belongs to reality, unique when it comes of a people . The difference between these two types of stories being by the presence or absence of fantastic and wonderful elements in the course of these stories, the Greek geographer so here denounced what he viewed as purely imaginary, mostly the facts that people, women continue to exist and he arrives to fight his neighbors, to overcome the same, and the height of implausibility, that these warriors were able to cross the Cimmerian Bosporus to attack Athens. In fact, Strabo's argument is based solely on the idea that he and his Greek contemporaries are women just before the Christian era, and we see that not only incapable of any will to judge self-determination and independence, but also the least ability to defend or attack their opponents militarily. The progression of rhetorical questions Strabo ends with a kind of misogynistic irony: "Is it not as if one said that men of old were women, and women from men? "Strabo does not just make the Amazons women masculinized by their independence and success of their military enterprises, but also feminine men they would have beaten or subjected, if they would have used to precisely" persist ". Through these words well feel the fear doubled aversion felt by the Greeks for these barbaric and warlike beyond, to all forms of gynecocracy and matriarchy.
Francis Chassipol and feminist paradise
In the last quarter of the xvii th century (1678), Francis Chassipol 4 , which aims to be the first modern author to treat the subject, wrote a book in which he tries to make these "heroines" tangible existence, presenting their history in narrative form completely excluding those quotes he learned. Instead, he simply called the thirty-two historians and poets eleven he was inspired. This work includes four main parts. The first deals of their origins and their first conquests, the second of their religious practices and the consolidation of their empire; the third narrates the episodes focused on Hercules and Theseus and the fourth ones on Penthesilea and Thomyris Thalestris. In the hundreds of pages of her new history of the Amazons made a substantially fictionalized Chassipol summary of what had been written on the people of Themiscyra.
Regarding the reports of the Amazons with males as sires or offspring, it seems to have preferred to describe the manners both softer and more credible rather than extending the Amazonian customs cruel often portrayed by complacently his sources. Certainly, the fathers of their future children were chosen from their defeated opponents and secured, but they only had obligations not to remain in the "Kingdom of the Amazon," never see their women during wars and to fully support their male children. Nothing, therefore, particularly reprehensible, or even inconceivable, for their French historian.
His vision is diametrically opposite to that given by most Greek historians of the classical period as that generally conveyed by many dictionaries and encyclopedias. For Chassipol, the Amazons are no longer a band of virile women, skewed and bloodthirsty, but a sorority governed under fair and warm principles, communists before the hour 5 . He chose to rehabilitate these people and women, in his work, gives the community an almost idyllic image.
Pierre Petit to the aid of Hippocrates
A few years later (1687) appears in Amsterdam, in its first Latin edition, the work of Pierre Petit entitled Dissertatio De Amazonibus and whose declared goal is to prove the truth of the past existence of the Amazons. It also happens quite well, not only using as arguments the archaeological remains accessible at the time, in particular a large number of coins and medals (whose authenticity is also questionable for some, among other reasons because they show the Amazons with only one breast, that no ancient illustration confirms), but also a rigorous and open reasoning sometimes approaching that Bachofen will be two centuries later on the same subject. Early in his Dissertatio Pierre Petit shows that well identifies the problem with the legends of the Amazons.
The only thing that shocks and which puzzles asses is that it is spoken in history, the Kingdom and the exploits of women who lived separately from men.
Indeed, these are not as manly strength, foundations or immense conquests Amazons disconcerted those historians who share the disbelief of Strabo, but the obligation to recognize the viability of an all-female society, even the mere possibility of such an ad hoc design. The De Amazonibus also gives room to other peoples of the Amazon, particularly those of Bohemia, but do not forget those who are a little less known as the Amazons of Damut, described by Father Jean Dos Santos . He also cites Eradius, author of the biography of a certain Abbe Poemon, which would have met the Amazons, "cruel and barbaric women" who massacred many holy fathers "several years after the birth of Christ."
The first argument of Pierre Petit is practical. As has focused its study on all Amazonian texts, he considers that, given the multiplicity and importance of these, it is more logical to give them some truth, even fragmented, as refute any block. It then notes that the main denial of the existence of the Amazons, that of Strabo, is essentially based on gender bias of it. Finally, he said, and like his master Hippocrates (Petit was a doctor), human behavior, more than hypothetical natural predispositions or irreversible biological determinism, is explained by the nature of the environment, climate, diet, etc. He therefore concluded that "Republic of the Amazons" actually existed and crazy tax one who would deny that women are of the same nature as men. And since we can not deny this intrinsic equality, it follows that God has endowed with reason the two human sexes and that women are able to counsel and caution, and therefore capable of governing.
Father Guyon: a synthesis effort
Shortly after, in 1740, Father Claude-Marie Guyon, published his History of ancient and modern Amazons , work is inspired by wanting those who had preceded him, but correcting their flaws and inaccuracies. The author begins by proving, in a long development, women have always been politically and militarily active. When he enters the thick of things it offers a half dozen of the most plausible etymologies, but without imposing any its readers, contrary to what eventually will most encyclopedists and authors who dictionaries often simply the most incredible, that of the breast cut. Moreover, the purpose of this priest is, like its immediate predecessors, to defend the thesis of the reality of the Amazons.
He was well aware that women of her time were not that distant relations with these "illustrious warrior"; However, he recognizes that it is in fact the result of a restrictive education and prejudices which often leave women "that the weakness in shares" and that "the world use the lightest learns that he is men are women and women are men. " As before him, Pierre Petit and Hippocrates, he thinks that the climate was responsible for their robust physical constitution and their strength of character. He puts in first place, as Chassipol, not their ability to do (and earn) wars but their propensity to live in peace.
|Narona ,Croatia Museum|
Amazon fighting Macedonian
Narona ,Croatia MuseumMen killing "snake women", fight against the Goddess.
Narona ,Croatia Museum
FG Bergmann and sacred function of the Amazons
A century later, in 1852, was published in Colmar a booklet of thirty pages, signed FG Bergmann, who was trying to take stock of the Amazons identifying any of them with any reality of those belonging to the field of fiction.
True Amazons were the priestesses of Artemis. Its representation in the form of a goddess with multiple breasts earned him the epithet "mamelue" which later also applied to her priestesses.
Bergmann then describes the course of influence of this cult who settled first in carolycien territory following the Cimmerian invasions. From there he beamed all over. The Amazons were thus the Cimmerian priestesses of the Great Goddess Lunar until the arrival of the Scythians that would put an end to these customs. They practiced human sacrifices and orgiastic rites who founded the Greek stories of the Amazons, which gradually became "men of Killer" because of these religious sacrifices. They lived without men because they were established all-female college, and were reproduced in ritual encounters with their neighbors because the Greeks had taken for such orgiastic fertility ceremonies they organized.
It is also influenced by the cult of the Amazons Bergmann explains that the education of Spartan girls whose king "seemed to have main purpose to make them true amazons or priestesses worthy of callous and savage Artemis ". Similarly, in Italy, it would be because of similarities worship that would have given this name Vestals of Amatae, actually derived following an Armenian influence, the name "Amazons" and not the supine or past participle of verb " amare ". Similarly finally Druidesses (Gallic on the island of Sein, Namnètes on another island at the mouth of the Loire and Cimbrian) mentioned by Strabo, also lived without men, meeting punctually, and practiced human sacrifice in the honor a female deity, probably a survival of Artemis of Cimmerian Amazons.
The "Amazons of the fable" according FG Bergmann, would thus have been devised according to the "Amazons of history" according to quite complex and relatively plausible mechanisms. But, wanting to generalize his theory, the author attempts to replicate these same mechanisms that would have created the Greek myth of the Amazons for other appearances in Europe. Thus, it would be because a castle called Dewyn (or Diewyn castle of the Young Girls) as the chroniclers of the Middle Ages would have imagined the "amazing history" of Wlasta detail that seems tenuous to be the only germ such a detailed narrative and detailed than the Bohemian Amazons.
20 Bergmann specification has nevertheless been valuable to emphasize the sanctity of the original function of the Amazons.
Macedonians against Amazons
Real Phrygian or Brygian is a she.
In the times represented on this vase males joined Amazons, they are so called "first sons" or parthenogenetic sons.
Male modeled phrygian helmets had beard on the cheeck peace.
|16 pointed Venus star occured during Macedonian Empire, it was blatant usurpation of the 8 armed star of Venus.|
January Jakob Bachofen: matriarchy, proto key to humanity
From the beginning of xviii th century, Le Maingre Boucicaut in its Amazons revolted, had the intuition of a previous "reign Mother" unveiled by ancient tragedy (the Oresteia of Aeschylus in particular) and Lafitau had already observed that "it is in women than is strictly [...] the order of generations and preservation of families." FG Bergmann had shown, in 1852, the Amazons were inseparable cults akin to the Great Goddess. Johann Jakob Bachofen and structura developed these ideas in his Das Mutterrecht , published in Stuttgart in 1861, inaugurating the book with a reflection that should have an impact in many different fields such as philosophy, religion, history, law and literature. Establishing a completely new design of mythical thought, his work, contradicting some jostling and prior to then, as the smug certainty of immutable patriarchal world order, would generate many controversies.
Next to the Greek civilization, we see emerging a more primitive social whole, which includes matriarchy, which alone can we make it understandable .
Bachofen made this observation result, firstly, to a reading of some Greek tragedies - which only make sense only if ask in advance the hypothesis of an earlier matriarchy - and historical texts in especially those dealing with Herodotus Lycians, which attest the matrilineal nature of inheritance among certain peoples. Comparing the Lycian history (Herodotus), Egypt (Diodorus) and Cantabria (Strabo) Bachofen therefore comes to universalize his system.
We acquire the belief that matriarchy is not the hallmark of a single people, but of a whole period in the history of mankind. It is the identity of the principle that we must seek to discover all .
This matriarchy and manners resulting product would then have a deification of women, particularly "the belief between the union of the immortal mortal mothers and fathers," matrilineal succession, the name matronymic, the emergence of "matries" the implacable nature of matricide (Eumenides in pursuit of Orestes). Gynaecocracy, likewise, have been marked by a legal organization based on mother love and family feelings, by statements that are free of discord, on a peaceful mind making use of harsh repression to punish violent crimes.
The matriarchal system was thus substituted for hetaerism aphroditique but the emergence and rapid development of the Dionysian cult was in turn to triumph over gynaecocratic system, sometimes causing its degeneration into Amazonism.
It should be noted again that Bachofen considered that feminine resistance development as universal, recurring everywhere to a certain stage of development of societies.
Theories of Bachofen, Nietzsche used and Engels adopted (for the latter the advent of patriarchy was "the world historical defeat of women"), aroused, especially after his death, several severe criticism for his thesis of original promiscuity (Westermark, 1891 and Schultz, 1902) and as for his "evolutionism" (Marett, 1936, and Lowie, 1937). Subsequently, on the same theory of matriarchy, critical anthropologists became general while becoming, for lack of tangible counterarguments, much more blurred. He was accused, for example, have confused matriarchal and matrilineal, which is incorrect because it regarded it only as a trace - decisive, it is true - a previous matriarchal state. Perhaps also he was wrong to universalise a succession of systems whose chain may came true a few times in some areas of the planet (but very ones we take for cradles of humanity).
The main attack came from Claude Levi-Strauss denies the hypothesis of a primitive universal matriarchy, ensuring that "public or simply social authority still belongs to men" 10 . In fact, to build his case, Levi-Strauss uses essentially the same method of analysis that Bachofen, noticing examples contrary to his and erecting them into universal truth. He dismantles the argument by asking matrilineality it can exist without matriarchy, preliminary or not, its not likely prior inferring anything about the matriarchy.
What challenges the anthropologist, is the universality of a primitive matriarchy, and validity of matrilineal evidence. There is absolutely not reject the idea that there was, here or there, matriarchies after having been dethroned by a male power, or even that matrilineality Lycian comes, for its part only of a possible Lycian matriarchy . For Lévi-Strauss, the doctrine of Bachofen, above all, can not be a dogma.
Daughter / D'AUTRE as "the Other " or "else"
It is, paradoxically, Simone de Beauvoir in 1949 in its Second Sex , taxed the theories of Bachofen of "rants". The woman has always been "the Other ", it could not be for man, a similar likely to access the role of subject, historical agent, and therefore, a fortiori , the political and social power. It relies on authority that was then Claude Lévi-Strauss and concludes that "in truth this golden age of the woman is a myth."
However, over this feminist discourse sum what The Second Sex , the author seems to make some concessions accessories, allusive, which totally contradict the remark made earlier, that process also uses quite often.
Despite having rejected the myth in limbo the event of a primitive matriarchy, it nevertheless considers that there was an evolution or a social revolution establishing patriarchy. What preceded was perhaps not so far a matriarchy. But a little further, addressing the religious subject (also making plenty of room for problems of sacralization of female virginity and maternal functions) and the ousting of ancient goddesses with male gods, it seems a bit narrow his thinking :
In the world reconquered by the males , it is a male God, Dionysus, who usurped the magical and savage virtues of Ishtar, Astarte; but it is still women who go wild around his image maenads, Thyades Bacchae call men to religious drunkenness, the sacred madness. The role of sacred prostitution is similar: it is both unleash and channel the powers of fertility .
Recognizing that the world was "reconquered by males," Simone de Beauvoir recognizes implicitly that they had, at some point, lost control. This moment, without being first in the history of humanity (that also never claimed Bachofen), however, did exist.
Amazons trained large cats for their attacks or animals simply recognised the enemy here - the hunting Kurgan that killed all live around him.
Inside the Bible there is interresting passage about 4 Horses of Apocalypse that shows how Nature turned against man.
I have no doubt Nature changed since then towards us because we disregarded Her.
Peter Gordon had yet three years ago published a very serious ethno-sociological study, Sexual Initiation and religious evolution , in which he established the link between the cult of the Great Goddess, the matriarchal social system and 'Amazonism through the sanctification of sex and sexual initiation. This disciple of Durkheim bases his explanation on cultural mixtures that have occurred in the Neolithic period, between agricultural matriarchal civilization of origin (which was first developed in the south, on the shores of the Indian Ocean ) and a pastoral civilization, nomadic and patriarchal, from the north. Groups of Amazons so would offer "the type of a very old cultural combination between the matriarchal villages and pastoral civilizing".
What usually confuses the issue of Amazonism is that the wrongly imagines a special kingdom of the Amazons, where they would have spread over the various continents to constitute a vast empire. In reality, it is after the fact that we broke into a block Amazons different countries. What existed originally, is spreading the agricultural society, sitting on the matriarchal principle . Here and there groups independent of each other, are in the long run is made; based on the same grounds, they reached similar organizations. But it was not the same Amazons it was .
ALAPATE as Amazons called Labrys being made unrecognisable in ancient Macedonian script or often being adjusted to fit the Bible. This is not the first case of "lost in translation" or "fitting the Bible" syndrom I found, there is way to much to be coincidence.
|Oyorpata, a case of LL being exchanged with Y|
Bulgari or Valkyrie existed in Myrmidonia
today Bulgarians have NO RIGHTS to claim the name.
(it says here that Achilles trained Myrmidonian Bulgaryans for Trojan wars)
Besides, Nordic myth about Valkyrie describes Helm-Balkan area around todays Bulgaria, as the enemy approached nearer peacefull cultures scattered deeper and norther in Europe and took tales with them which only proves common ancestry of entire Europe. Kurgans followed and raped and killed deeper and norther in Europe, see "Viking stones of shame"
Besides Eda sounds like Veda
In the last part of Sexual Initiation and Religious Education , Peter Gordon devotes a chapter to explaining the Amazonism, that is to say the formation of women-only communities, he conceives in as part of a dual system defined as "the bipartisan organization of exogamy." Gender segregation find its origins in the initiation rites, naturally different for the two sexes neophytes, and their preparation. In short " the Amazonism where sex bipartition rule, was merely an extension of the pre-initiation period, during which the girls lived apart, and this, in a matriarchal environment where the marriage was not in cohabitation but in union ritual ". In other cultures, the extension of this period was a hiérodulie whose well has Amazonism characters. It further notes that in many peoples living together of men and women is undeniably a cause of permanent disabilities and a temporary separation usually brings the solution.
Robert Graves, in the introduction to its study, perhaps more poetic than scientific, on Greek myths, before delivering his analyzes inspired by each of these, axiom poses the real existence of a Neolithic matriarchy European.
The old Europe had no gods. The Great Goddess was regarded as immortal, immutable and all-powerful; and the concept of filiation by the father had not penetrated into religious thought. She had lovers but only for pleasure and not to have children with a father. The men in the matriarchal system, feared and worshiped the Supreme mother and they obeyed him. The fireplace in the cave or in the hut was the oldest center in the company and the first mystery was the mother.
Fertilization of the woman at the dawn of humanity, was first considered magical, where the aura of power and mystery of the Mother. The woman, in a logical progression of its natural features, gave birth to children, educated the, then led the childhood, adolescence, adult life, until they separate from it, to go and give another woman. If there was one day a right to take the life he was naturally given priority to the one that gave and preserved. The religious building that was around the woman, although she was not exclusively lunar (the Héméra goddesses in Greece and Ireland were Grainne solar goddesses) was structured according to the three phases of the moon - new, full and old - recalling the three ages of matriarchy, "that of the girl, the nymph (nubile woman) and the old woman." So therefore constituted the initial female triad that would later coalesce into becoming more complex over the centuries.
The thesis of Robert Graves, who led him to write his Greek Myths and who had previously been exposed in his seminal book The White Goddess , has as its starting point the priority of the lunar cult of the Mother Goddess throughout the Europe, including its western and northern parts, and mythical emergences. Its bright interpretations of myths that concern us here are but the logical outcome. The particular subject of the Amazons, he thinks it is the Armenian etymology, meaning "Women of the Moon", which should be adopted. They were armed priestesses of the moon goddess, Athena in Greece and / or Artemis at Ephesus and, probably, in Tauris (Crimea).
The Amazons, warrior of the difference
During the xx th century, at least fifteen researchers have devoted an entire book to the Amazons. Each of the motives are highly diverse, some of these authors are oriented more towards archeology (Roman Girshman and Thérèse David), history (Guy Cadogan Rothery and Carlos Alonso del Real), without neglecting ethnography (William Blake Tyrell), folklore (Pierre Samuel) or philosophy (Geneviève Pastre), others to the literature, ancient (Josine Blok) and modern (Abby Wettan Kleinbaum), to sociology (Françoise d'Eaubonne and Helen Diner) , religion (Florence Mary Bennett) and of course the mythology, Greek (Donald Sobol and Page duBois) and Latin American (Jean-Pierre Sanchez). All are influenced by the theories of Bachofen, although sometimes they reject, in whole or in part. Somewhat paradoxically, the most vocal opponents of the hypothesis of a real existence of the Amazons are mythologists (William Blake Tyrrell) and not historians, unanimously (Carlos Alonso del Real and Geneviève Pastre in particular), not can imagine that there is not at least some truth in the legend.
In 1911, released two books on the subject, that of the historian archaeologist Walter Leonhard defending the thesis of the original Hittite Amazons, and that of the Englishman Guy Cadogan Rothery. The latter provides a very comprehensive overview of the Amazons identified so far in the history and prehistory, continent after continent, in the light of theories of Bachofen. This led him to consider the relationship between Amazonism and matriarchy, looking after studying the traces of that one in flagrant emergences of it. Rothery divided the stories into three main classes (governed by the nations women, women living apart but have occasional contact with the outside world and women organized in gangs) that history will book a different fate. The first were small nations (like the Amazons of Damut or gypsies of Wlasta) which, because they were not fatally invincible warlike, disappeared after military defeats. The existence of seconds is all the more credible that one can find matches today. Adult men of a people or tribe could leave on time for fishing (as in some Breton villages) or hunting and remain absent for months, and the community of women and children who remained could pass, the foreign eyes, a people of Amazons. The third and last class, women's groups organized militarily, belonged to the realm of religion. They were, according to Guy Cadogan Rothery, armed priestesses of a religion, under the authority of a king or queen as it existed in Africa xx th century, or incorporated sororities doomed to a sacred mission .
The cult of the Great Goddess
This last proposal Rothery, which can also let imagine an army more or less nomadic women missionaries propagating or defending the worship of the Great Goddess, called a religious development. This is what Florence Mary Bennett performs the following year, in 1912, with Religious Cults Associated with the Amazons . She studied and described the links between the Amazons of Greek mythology, the Great Mother, the goddess Cybele in its various forms of Artemis Ephesia, Lyceia, Touropolos and Astrateia, and Ares, to draw the conclusion that the Amazons were before all fervent ( votaries ) of the Great Goddess, intimately associated with the cults of primitive deities of fertility and war. Three of the most common theories about the Amazons seem relatively credible to him, the first being the Cimmerian event, the second that of warrior priestesses of the goddess Hittite hiérodulie Ma, the third the result of a confusion of the Greeks, for which no having no beard was proof of feminine essence. Florence Bennett however has some objections to each of them and makes clear, in light of then cults practiced in Asia Minor and beyond, relations between the Mother Goddess, matriarchy and the Amazons, based on the character religious and sacred functions of the latter.
The Marxist vision
The thesis which, without being absolutely contrary, should logically take the materialist against the foot of one of Florence Bennett, The Amazons: A Marxian Study Emmanuel Kanter, appeared in 1926. The author develops the Marxist theories, they -Same strongly influenced by those of Bachofen. Before him, Marx and Engels had laid the matriarchy of the problem in economic terms. Agriculture, natural female domain that also involved a settlement and some appropriation of land, then competed gradually surpassed in terms of economic efficiency, the primitive mode of food production, hunting. The woman thus became the "ruling class". Matriarchy would have been a transitory phenomenon, quite short but sufficient to produce operating prehistoric dialectic that would have caused the formation of Amazon communities. This is precisely the purpose of Emanuel Kanter thinks that the Amazons have appeared after this time matriarchal, to resist men who gradually appropriated the land and the women who worked. They were thus, according to him and recalling that the view of the Chassipol xvii th century "primitive communist who had thrown off the yoke of bondage imposed by the males."
In the last third of the XX th century, mainly under the influence of feminism in full development that multiplied the studies on the Amazons, their history and myths. Each researcher has of course tried to address more or less all aspects of the problem but yet still favoring this or that aspect, such or such a human science. That is why, perhaps somewhat arbitrarily but in a clarification, one can separate them into four groups, whose borders are obviously very permeable, each dominated by ethnography, history, mythology or art .
Helen Diner presents his book, Mothers and Amazons , as "the first women's cultural history." Its purpose is to illustrate the theories of Bachofen with specific examples that are provided to him by the mythology, ethnology and psychology of Freud and Jung. Helen Diner trying to find the roots of the female sex in this universal matriarchy she lists the clues and evidence. It traces the history of the dominant femininity of matriarchy - from the cult of the Great Goddess to its most egregious vestiges that are the customs of couvade and the emergence of peoples of the Amazon - and find examples in world history.
It's a bit the same type of work that realized later Françoise d'Eaubonne in 1976 with his book Women before patriarchy . Written probably in a more militant perspective, this last work exposes, besides the very positive results of cultural and ethnographic research of the author, the basics of eco-feminist theory and which it defends is also rooted in this matriarchy destroyed in illo tempore by a dominant male, very respectful of the Other, whether represented by his partner or his neighbor, and just as contemptuous environment and the entire planet that the ancient Great Goddess. By pouring the file many additional clues and evidence, Françoise d'Eaubonne clearly echo what Peter Gordon. In a note to another book, a bit older and spent more evenly to the cause of women, Françoise d'Eaubonne had explicitly stated its views on the Amazons.
My research led me to believe it's defense, arms in hand, agricultural wealth, which is the origin of so-called "legends" of the Amazons and their battles against hunters and shepherds men, segregation sexual being required by the male taboo against female sexuality.
In the latter work the author is already developing his theory of eco-feminism, does not completely dissociating the fight against the phallocratism it involves clearly stating that "for the moment, we can not escape the war of the sexes "and that" we must prepare ourselves. " Thus, beyond the time, the myth meets reality since the beginning of the Patriarchate until its overturning.
Lesbianism and Amazonism
Historian philosopher Geneviève Pastre, who had already published a study on Athens and the Sapphic risk , adds in 1996 a book specifically on the Amazons of antiquity. This text features some of the conclusions of the book of Françoise d'Eaubonne which moreover it resembles in some ways. The purpose of Geneviève Pastre is primarily to demystify the Amazons, first in demystifying them literally, that is to say by removing the sacred and fixed nature of myth and then returning them to a universal domain, actually by relating to a more modern archetype, according to her inseparable from female homosexuality. It also would have been the main driver of current research, the curiosity of lesbians, according to the author, having "woken past two years about their probable ancestors repressed in history, even from today: the Amazons. "
In this essay, I am not trying to "weld" at any price the group (community they say) lesbian (do), I try to encourage reflection on historical facts and whether the Amazons falls universal if, having existed, they participated for their part in building their present and their future and whether, if so, they are still acting today among the same old reasons for the successive transformations of peoples, their political and social structures. I very wary of so-called "founding myth", I see the dangerous irrational, even for "minorities" oppressed, I see a useless except to exhilaration leaders because it blinds the mass and ten times the energy it makes unfit for fruitful reflection 16 .
In the context of a proto very detailed study, based as much on the texts (mainly Herodotus, Diodorus and Strabo) on archaeological data, Genevieve Pastre establishes a real route of the Amazons, literally as figuratively, starting the great Indo-European migrations of the third millennium BC to the most recent movements reported by the historians of antiquity, and arrives to establish an illuminating mapping, although quite complex wanderings of peoples whose Amazons belongs. Still, this demonstration has said militant goal (and that's why Geneviève Pastre approaches Françoise d'Eaubonne). Referring to conclude, the text of Herodotus describes the Amazons aggregating to Sauromates, she argues that this aggregation could be understood differently, not as an "indifferent polyculturalisme, unintelligent and passive" but as an extension.
In the same vein, Susan Cavin, as part of a comprehensive theory of origins lesbians based on sex ratios (women in societies where they were far more numerous, would naturally monopolized power and practiced, always naturally, lesbianism), think the Amazonian communities originate, at least partially, in a local and timely disproportion of these ratios. The New York University also think that the origin of human society in general is a gynecocracy ( gynosociety ) and many forms of gynécocraties have their origins in Amazonian societies and / or lesbians.
Samuel Peter has published in 1975 which is undoubtedly the most important data compiled to date on the historical and literary Amazons. Work all the more vast that hears the word "Amazon" in the broadest sense, that is to say including the American sense of strong woman, physically powerful and muscular, even giant, likening the same the wild and gallant woman. Few things are forgotten in this encyclopaedic, moreover a more structured alphabetical encyclopedia, such as Jessica Amanda Salmonson. Pierre Samuel did not rely only his research in ancient texts but also conducts in-depth exploration of universal folklore, which has the merit of the Amazon sit phenomenon not only on reputable literary texts exegesis belongs only to academics but also on popular texts insiders, often oral tradition, rooted in the memory of peoples, like The Arabian Nights . Besides the preface of Françoise d'Eaubonne 17 , entitled Spoofing the myths, which is a true manifesto for eco-feminism, war and bawdy Amazons of Pierre Samuel induce a fundamentally different attitude toward feminism and Amazonism because it is his conclusion, "women have been deprived of their history," it is their part in giving back that rehabilitate Amazonism, rehabilitation that will be a victory against sexism and undoubtedly a step towards a "libertarian environmentalist and society." As we see, the goal of Pierre Samuel is not only cultural, although it adds an important building block already considerable product by the myth of the Amazons.
Thus, since Strabo, the Amazons have attracted a large number of reflections and above controversy, concentrating primarily on their real existence but confirming or refuting it with arguments based essentially on their differences, the nature and likelihood. The fact that women have been able to live alone, independently, plunges man in such discomfort that he is compelled to be, in illo tempore , to massacre as quickly any emerging female people guilty of combining these two unbearable otherness, barbarism (otherness) and femininity, or, in historic times, to spread best the idea of a wonder, such a fanciful fable than Centaurs or the Sirens, because such a difference (the woman equal to man, or even greater, and / or could live without it) needs to be implausible.
First To curb this general rejection, and masculine, a female autonomous as possible and independent way of life, many philosophers and / or historians, over the centuries, have studied, from the xiii e , Amazon on this issue (Alfonso X the sabio , Boccaccio, Christine de Pisan). From the xvii th century, with Francis Chassipol, several authors publish books entirely devoted to the Amazons, their legends and their possible reality. All conclude that reality but few will see them as anything but a disturbing historical anecdote. FG Bergmann, however, provides a crucial link between the people of women and the cult of the Mother Goddess, confirm the hypothesis that xix thcentury Swiss Johann Jakob Bachofen.The latest research which the Amazons are subject also go in the direction of assumed differences and defended by military : farming lifestyle and sedentary versus nomadic and hunting, peaceful cult of the Great Goddess versus polytheism and monotheism and male warriors, homosexuality female versus heterosexual women opting for a lower status. Françoise d'Eaubonne, Samuel Pierre and Geneviève Pastre, contribute for their part, each in their specific area of expertise, to develop a more complex meaning of the myth of the Amazons, activist and feminist, as related to a probable glorious past women as a desirable and better future which alone probably hold the key. Emerging new meanings of the term confirm this battle of will for the right to difference. New Amazons are physically powerful women (the United States, especially, where the word becomes synonymous with bodybuilder or wrestler Giant) and independent women in their struggle for emancipation, lesbians in final break with the dominant male culture. In any case, Amazon is again the Barbarian (in foreign etymological sense), the Other.
A ENEAS S YLVII (P II S ECUNDI , Pontificus maximi) From Bohemorum 1766.
C ARVAJAL OP, Fray Gaspar, Relación del Nuevo Descubrimiento of Río Grande de las Amazonas .
D IODORE OF S cult , Historical Library .
H ÉRODOTE , History .
J USTIN (Justinus Historicus), Universal History of Justin extracted Trogus Pompey .
Q UINTE -C CERs , Stories .
Q UINTUS OF S Myrne , Suite Homer .
S Trabon , Geography .
Essential critical works
B ACHOFEN Johann Jakob, Das Muterrecht 1861.
B EAUVOIR Simone, The Second Sex , 1949.
B Ennett Florence Mary, Religious Cults Associated with the Amazons, 1912.
C AVIN Susan, Lesbian Origins , 1985.
D INER Helen, Mothers and Amazons, The first feminine history of Culture 1965.
E AUBONNE Françoise d ' Feminism or death , in 1974.
- Women before patriarchy , 1976.
G ORDON Pierre, Sexual Initiation and religious evolution , 1946.
P ASTRE Genevieve The Amazons 1996.
S ALMONSON Jessica Amanda, The Encyclopedia of Amazons, 1991.
S amuel Pierre, Amazons, warrior and galliards 1975.
T YRELL William Blake, Amazons. A Study in Athenian Mythmaking 1984.
Abstract directed by Laurence Marie.
* This article is the summary of a chapter of the thesis The Archémythe Amazons , defended in Sorbonne January 14, 2000 by Alain Bertrand and headed by Professor Pierre Brunel. This thesis was accompanied by a multimedia CD-ROM listing the emergence of the Amazon myth in all the arts, from its origins to today.
1 Historians Amazons are legion. Among the most important: Justin for the origins, Diodorus of Sicily for the Libyan Amazons especially Quintus of Smyrna for the account of the death of Penthesilea about Sauromates Herodotus, Quintus Curtius for the loves of Alexander and Thalestris, Aeneas Sylvii on Wlasta, Fray Gaspar de Carvajal, Cristobal Colón, Hernán Cortés and Alfonso X to the Amazons of the New World, Hélène d'Almeida Topor-for those of Dahomey.
2 Strabo, Geography (Book XI, V, 1-4).
3 Yet (and this is probably one stone in the garden Strabo) any variation of the Greek myth never credited the Amazons of parthenogenesis faculty. See Nicole Loraux, Children of Athena Athenian ideas about citizenship and equality division , Paris, Maspero, coll. "Texts in support," 1981, p. 90-97
4 We do not know almost nothing of this historian, if he wrote this novel at the request of Colbert, and a study of the finances of the Romans.
5 Before the time of the first Christian communism, of course. Acts of the Apostles , II, 42-45.
6 Portuguese Jesuit, author of a description of Eastern Ethiopia .
7 Johann Jakob Bachofen, the reign of the mother patriarchy, Johann Jakob Bachofen: pages chosen by Adrien Turel , Lausanne, Editions de l'Aire, 1980, p (al "Agora".). 25.
8 Ibid ., p. 26. It is the author emphasizes.
9 Ibid ., p. 73.
10 Quoted by Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex, t. 1, p. 112.
11 This emphasis, as in the above quotation.
12 Peter Gordon, Sexual Initiation and religious evolution , p. 16-17. It is the author emphasizes.
13 Ibid ., p. 197-198.
14 Robert Graves, The Greek Myths , op. cit. , vol. I, p. 20.
15 Françoise d'Eaubonne, Feminism or Death , p. 114-115.
16 Geneviève Pastre, The Amazons , p. 26-30.
17 Françoise d'Eaubonne is also environmentalist. The relationship between ecology and Amazons have long been obscured, but the work of these two researchers now makes this inevitable rapprochement.
Alain Bertrand , "The armed branch of feminism: the Amazons," Labyrinth , 7 | 2000 Topics (7), 67-88.
Alain Bertrand , "The armed branch of feminism: the Amazons," Labyrinth [Online], 7 | 2000 Topics (7) Online since March 22, 2005, connection on 01 June 2015. URL: http: // maze. revues.org/742
About the author
Alain Bertrand first became interested in detective novel with a view both semiotics and archetypal with the decor Survey: Archetype and figuration in the detective story, the example of the New Mysteries of Paris of Léo Malet, master's thesis made in 1995 under the leadership of Jean-Claude Vareille at the University of Limoges. Today Professor of Modern Letters at a college of Haute-Vienne, he continued his research on the persistent myth of the Amazons and completing a critical edition of the tragedy Amazons, written in 1749 by Marie Du Boccage (Rouen, 1710-1802 ). Alainbertrand (at) wanadoo. fr
Phaedra and Hypolita